Digital Democracy: The Tools Transforming Political Engagement
This paper shares lessons from Nesta’s research into some of the pioneering
innovations in digital democracy <http://www.nesta.org.uk/node/38932> which
are taking place across Europe and beyond.
- Digital democracy is a broad concept and not easy to define. The paper
provides a granular approach to help encompass its various activities and
methods (our ‘typology of digital democracy’).
- Many initiatives exist simply as an app, or web page, driven by what
the technology can do, rather than by what the need is.
- Lessons from global case studies describe how digital tools are being
used to engage communities in more meaningful political participation, and
how they are improving the quality and legitimacy of decision-making.
- Digital democracy is still young. Projects must embed better methods
for evaluation of their goals if the field is to grow.
Thanks to digital technologies, today we can bank, read the news, study for
a degree, and chat with friends across the world - all without leaving the
comfort of our homes. But one area that seems to have remained impervious
to these benefits is our model of democratic governance, which has remained
largely unchanged since it was invented in the 20th century.
New experiments are showing how digital technologies can play a critical
role in engaging new groups of people, empowering citizens and forging a
new relationship between cities and local residents, and parliamentarians
At the parliamentary level, including in Brazil and France, experiments
with new tools are enabling citizens to contribute to draft legislation.
Political parties such as Podemos in Spain and the Icelandic Pirate Party
are using tools such as Loomio, Reddit and Discourse to enable party
members and the general public to deliberate and feed into policy
proposals. Local governments have set up platforms to enable citizens to
submit ideas and information, rank priorities and allocate public resources.
After a detailed exploration of these case studies and the lessons from
them, we explore the challenges which digital democracy will need to
address in the future. This includes how to develop a more nuanced
understanding of what we mean by ‘participation’ and tackling the digital
Lessons from the innovators
- Develop a clear plan and process: Pioneers in the field engage people
meaningfully by giving them a clear stake; they conduct stakeholder
analysis; operate with full transparency; and access harder-to-reach groups
with offline methods.
- Get the necessary support in place: The most successful initiatives
have clear-backing from lawmakers; they also secure the necessary resources
to promote to the process properly (PR and advertising), as well as the
internal systems to manage and evaluate large numbers of ideas.
- Choose the right tools: The right digital tools help to improve the
user-experience and understanding of the issue, and can help remove some of
the negative impacts of those who might try to damage or ‘game’ the process.
Julie Simon, Theo Bass, Victoria Boelman and Geoff Mulgan
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Steven Clift - Executive Director, E-Democracy.org
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